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Roman Civil Wars banner

  • Roman Civil Wars Title Info
  • Planning Maps
  • Improvements
  • Official Add-Ons
Roman Civil Wars cover

-On the banks of the Rubicon...-

The era of the Roman Republic and early Empire was a time of great military conflict. This period saw the Civil Wars of Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great, Augustus and Marc Antony, as well as Caesar's conquest of Gaul, Crassus' disastrous expedition against the Parthians, and Rome's push over the Rhine River and into Germania. Roman Civil Wars focuses on the famous battles of the years 55 BC to 10 AD where legionary fought wild barbarian tribesmen, Parthian horse archers, and all too often, other legionaries.

It was in these wars that the Imperial Roman army would be forged. The basic legionary unit was the cohort, supported by various auxiliary forces.

The First Triumvirate, 59 - 53 BC, saw Caesar, Pompey and Crassus divide the Roman world among themselves. But this fell apart with the death of Crassus at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. Caesar and Pompey then fought for supreme power, 49 - 44 BC. Caesar triumphed, but following his assassination the second Triumvirate of Octavian, Lepidus and Mark Anthony ruled the Republic from 43 - 33 BC. They soon fell out among themselves and another civil war was in the offing. The decisive battle of Actium in 31 BC saw Octavian defeat Mark Anthony and become the first of the emperors as Augustus. Octavian consolidated the frontiers and expanded Rome's domain in to Germania. In 9 AD the German disaster of Teutoburger Forest resulted in the destruction of three Roman Legions and temporarily halted Rome's expansion. So ended a century of warfare.

Caesar's Army

Click to Enlarge


Roman Civil Wars includes an enhanced computer A.I. that plays an aggressive strategy against the gamer. In response, players must use their best formations and tactics to win the day. Game tactics are based on historical factors, so you can use the lessons from Herodotus and other ancient historians to win through. You may also face off against an opponent, or join in a multi-player PBEM battle with hundreds of units. Scenarios are drawn from history, or players can engage in balanced hypothetical matches from the table top series of battles.

Roman Civil Wars uses the HPS Ancient Warfare engine. This provides a hex based, tactical, plot, simultaneous resolution execution. A game turn is composed of three phases:
  • The player assigns commands to his units (movement, changing formation etc).
  • The program then determines the net effect of these orders as the move is played out.
  • Finally, units move, fire at each other, and engage in melee combat.
The players watch the outcome of their decisions as a turn of action unfolds. The game then moves on to the next turn.

Battle of Pharsalus

Battle of Pharsalus -Click to Enlarge


In Roman Civil Wars, you choose your army, your troop types, weapons and armour, then play them against the computer AI or a human opponent. The game combines history with playability to deliver an exciting tactical level conflict on Rome's battlefields.

New features include – unique unit types, competition style battles, limited missile supply, and morale impact. All these make for a new and exciting game in HPS's Ancient Warfare series.

Game Scale: Each hex represents a distance of 20 meters.
Each turn represents 15 minutes of real time.

In addition to the main game engine there is also a scenario editor included which allows players to create their own scenarios from scratch, edit existing scenarios, and build their own Order of Battles. Detailed instructions are included on how to use the editors but also on how to calculate points for your army and even how to modify the stock graphics if a player so desires; this latter function is called “Paint your own army”.

Port under siege
Numidian Army
Roman Cavalry

Click to Enlarge



  • Programme Developer: Paul Bruffell
  • Project Manager: Paul Bruffell
  • Unit Graphics: Joseph Beres & Dean Beecham
  • Terrain Graphics: Magnus Pettersson
  • Scenario Design: Richard White, Glyn Hargreaves, Peter Dawson, & Paul Bruffell
  • Playtesters: Richard White, Tim Delaney, Peter Dawson, Klaus Kuhlmann, Atle Jenssen & Glyn Hargreaves

Minimum Requirements:

Windows 2000, XP, Vista, or 7

Processor: 1 GHz

Disk Space: 1000 MB

Memory: 512 MB

Planning Maps     (click for full-sized images)
Alexandria map Antigonia map AWS Village 004 map
Alexandria: 2.92 mb gif Antigonia: 2.93 mb gif AWS Village 004: 8.69 mb gif

Bagradas River map Campaign 2 map Carrhae map
Bagradas River: 2.97 mb gif Campaign 2: 3 mb gif Carrhae: 2.42 mb gif

Cilician Gate map Dyrrhachium map Gaza map
Cilician Gate: 1.76 mb gif Dyrrhachium: 3.03 mb gif Gaza: 1.72 mb gif

Ilerda map Munda map Mutina map
Ilerda: 2.43 mb gif Munda: 2.76 mb gif Mutina: 3.04 mb gif

Nile map Pelusion map Pharsalus map
Nile: 1.78 mb gif Pelusion: 1.15 mb gif Pharsalus: 4.97 mb gif

Philippi map Ruspina map Thapsus map
Philippi: 4.65 mb gif Ruspina: 4.04 mb gif Thapsus: 1.50 mb gif

Tigranocerta map Utica Valley map Uzitta map
Tigranocerta: 3.81 mb gif Utica Valley: 3.44 mb gif Uzitta: 2.80 mb gif

Village 1 map Zela map  
Village 1 map: 1.14 mb gif Zela: 1.73 mb gif  
Click for larger views (but still smaller than full size).

Roman Civil Wars Improvements

Roman Civil Wars Version 1.00

Battle Engine

Added – Rate of increase in fatigue is reduced for a large unit with many ranks. As losses occur in the front rank they are readily replaced by men from the ranks behind.
For a unit strength of 350 – 449, increase in fatigue of 4 is reduced by 1.
For a unit strength of 350 – 449, increase in fatigue of 5 or more is reduced by 2.
For a unit strength of 450 or more, increase in fatigue of 4 is reduced by 1.
For a unit strength of 450 or more, increase in fatigue of 5 is reduced by 2.
For a unit strength of 450 or more, increase in fatigue of 6 or more is reduced by 3.

Added – Computer AI attack feature for siege warfare. If Computer AI player is the attacker on a siege then the AI must be the first player. Battering ram unit retires one hex once the wall collapses.

Added – Missile units are now restricted to 10 rounds of fire (limited fire). The ammunition level is given by right clicking the Unit Information Box. Missile Units with no ammunition are highlighted by clicking the menu – Display – Highlight – No Ammunition Left.

Added – Losses shown in pop-up box when unit overrun.

Added – Game play Scenario starting option – 'Group Morale impact' – At the end of the Events Phase in each turn, each grouping of units morale is averaged and those not in combat have their morale raised to the average to reflect the fear felt by the rear ranks and the tendency for units to disintegrate from the rear ranks.

Added – Tournament Play option – See Manual for details

Added – Leaders now evade any adjacent enemy unit in the same manner as a skirmisher unit.

Added – Archery overhead fire. Foot archers armed with the composite bow (only) can now do indirect fire as long as the enemy is visible to some part of the friendly army. The range of bow indirect fire is 6 hexes as the arrows are fired high in to the air.

Added – Keyboard 'Hot Key' 'I' for Unit Information Box on the map (toggle on and off)

Adjusted – Troops on an assault tower no longer suffer Reaction Test result where the unit is forced to abandon the tower simply because of a 'Retire / Recoil' result. Units will still leave the tower if forced to retreat or rout. This change reduces the likelihood of attacking troops abandoning the assault tower and preventing further attacks on the wall.

Adjusted – Missile fire range –
Short bow and mounted archer = 6 hexes
Ordinary Slinger = 5 hexes
Lead-shot Slinger = 7 hexes

Adjusted – Army morale is now calculated based on unit class:
Army Morale = Army Morale + (Unit Strength*(70-Unit Fatigue)*Unit Class)
Initial Army Morale = Initial Army Morale + (Unit Initial Strength*70*Unit Class)
Overall Army Morale % = Army Morale / Initial Army Morale

The above calculation allows for unit class and avoids small elite armies routing too rapidly and reduces resilience of large militia armies.

Adjusted – Combat factors – to allow more effectively for shock heavy cavalry charging in, the combat modifier has been adjusted to +2 and for EHC and SHC to +3. For militia and levy troops a new modifier of –1.

Adjusted – Combat factors – to allow more effectively for a charismatic leader in the combat hex. Legendary leaders +3, Experienced leaders +2, Mediocre leaders +1. Previously all leaders were at +1.

Adjusted – Unit formation change now permitted in fields where the crop is not full grown.

Adjusted – Legionary unit special rules introduced – build bridge, destroy bridge, retire front rank, construct palisade – as originally seen in Gallic Wars.

Adjusted – Reaction test results modified for 'D' class troops – more likely to rout or go into uncontrolled advance. See updated Rules Manual Reaction Test table.

Adjusted – Speed of updating Unit Information Box improved.

Adjusted – Cavalry and chariots can not move in to a palisade hex.

Adjusted – Archery fire is reduced by 1 if the target is over 5 hexes distant and –2 if over 7 hexes distant.

Adjusted – AI computer player now only permitted to split units as per player restrictions. Pike and Long Spear Units can not be split and automatically combine when in the same hex at the start of a player's turn.

Corrected – Troops with ladder on combat at the city walls would loose the ladder facility too often without retreat or routing. Now corrected.

Corrected – Computer AI units were not making ladders on approach to enemy city wall. Now corrected.

Corrected – Stone thrower unit not shooting – now working.

Corrected – Units entering assault tower not showing disruption – now corrected.

Corrected – Main game manual updated.

Scenario Editor
Added – Hot key 'U' for 'No Unit' option when selecting units to add to map.

Adjusted – menu - Army - Nations in Scenario. This pop-down option now checks for previous settings.

Adjusted – Maximum strength of leader unit moved up to 20.

Corrected – Intelligence Reports now showing for all armies.

Corrected - Loading Training Camp armies now working.

Corrected – Editor Manual updated.

To promote the launch of Roman Civil Wars I have attached here 10 competition battles for e-mail play. Competition battles are called 'Tournament battles' in the game start up screen. This is where you are provided with 10 maps with set up zones for your army and a 12 different armies to choose from. Each map has two specific nation armies that can be used on that map who will fight each other. The specific 2 armies are listed in the scenario description for that map. Unzip the file into the game Scenario sub-folder then play the game. If you are not familiar with this new feature read the Word document included in this file. Any problems drop me a line here. Good luck and have fun.

-Paul Bruffell

Tournament Battles files

Tournament Play documentation

20 Mar 2012: HPS launches RCW Expansion Pack - free of charge.

German Wars Expansion Pack includes scenarios such as Idistaviso, Teutoburger Wald and the campaigns of Germanicus. This pack adds 15 new scenarios (incl. 13 maps) to cover a range of battles in Germany. Available here or on the HPS Website.

German Wars Expansion Pack



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